XML 예약문자

<, >, &는 XML tag 표시와 entity를 표시하는 XML 예약문자로, XML 문서에 그대로 사용할 수 없다.

< (less-than sign)&lt;
> (greater-than sign)&gt;
& (ampersand)&amp;


그리스 문자는 풀어서 사용한다.

σ, Σsigma
ω, Ωomega

기호 & 부호

&lt; or =
&gt; or =
degrees C
㎍, μGmicrogram
㎕, μLmicroliter
㎛, μMmicrometer


화학기호는 윗첨자나 아랫첨자를 지정하지 않고 그대로 입력한다.



수학기호는 윗첨자나 아랫첨자를 괄호 "( )" 안에 넣어서 입력한다.


출처 - http://www.kamje.or.kr/special.html

In SGMLHTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference. This article lists the character entity references that are valid in HTML and XML documents.



[edit]Character reference overview

numeric character reference refers to a character by its Universal Character Set/Unicode code point, and uses the format




where nnnn is the code point in decimal form, and hhhh is the code point in hexadecimal form. The x must be lowercase in XML documents. The nnnn or hhhh may be any number of digits and may include leading zeros. The hhhh may mix uppercase and lowercase, though uppercase is the usual style.

In contrast, a character entity reference refers to a character by the name of an entity which has the desired character as its replacement text. The entity must either be predefined (built into the markup language) or explicitly declared in a Document Type Definition (DTD). The format is the same as for any entity reference:


where name is the case-sensitive name of the entity. The semicolon is required.

[edit]Predefined entities in XML

The XML specification does not use the term "character entity" or "character entity reference". The XML specification defines five "predefined entities" representing special characters, and requires that all XML processors honor them. The entities can be explicitly declared in a DTD, as well, but if this is done, the replacement text must be the same as the built-in definitions. XML also allows other named entities of any size to be defined on a per-document basis.

The table below lists the five XML predefined entities. The "Name" column mentions the entity's name. The "Character" column shows the character. To render the character, the format &name; is used; for example, &amp; renders as &. The "Unicode code point" column cites the character via standard UCS/Unicode "U+" notation, which shows the character's code point in hexadecimal. The decimal equivalent of the code point is then shown in parentheses. The "Standard" column indicates the first version of XML that includes the entity. The "Description" column cites the character via its canonical UCS/Unicode name, in English.

NameCharacterUnicode code point (decimal)StandardDescription
quot"U+0022 (34)XML 1.0double quotation mark
amp&U+0026 (38)XML 1.0ampersand
apos'U+0027 (39)XML 1.0apostrophe (= apostrophe-quote)
lt<U+003C (60)XML 1.0less-than sign
gt>U+003E (62)XML 1.0greater-than sign

[edit]Character entity references in HTML

The HTML 4 DTDs define 252 named entities, references to which act as mnemonic aliases for certain Unicode characters. The HTML 4 specification requires the use of the standard DTDs and does not allow users to define additional entities.

In the table below, the "Standard" column indicates the first version of the HTML DTD that defines the character entity reference. HTML 4.01 did not provide any new character references.

NameCharacterUnicode code point (decimal)StandardDTD[a]Old ISO subset[b]Description[c]
quot"U+0022 (34)HTML 2.0HTMLspecialISOnumquotation mark (= APL quote)
amp&U+0026 (38)HTML 2.0HTMLspecialISOnumampersand
apos'U+0027 (39)XHTML 1.0HTMLspecialISOnumapostrophe (= apostrophe-quote); see below
lt<U+003C (60)HTML 2.0HTMLspecialISOnumless-than sign
gt>U+003E (62)HTML 2.0HTMLspecialISOnumgreater-than sign
nbsp U+00A0 (160)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumno-break space (= non-breaking space)[d]
iexcl¡U+00A1 (161)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnuminverted exclamation mark
cent¢U+00A2 (162)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumcent sign
pound£U+00A3 (163)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumpound sign
curren¤U+00A4 (164)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumcurrency sign
yen¥U+00A5 (165)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumyen sign (= yuan sign)
brvbar¦U+00A6 (166)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumbroken bar (= broken vertical bar)
sect§U+00A7 (167)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumsection sign
uml¨U+00A8 (168)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOdiadiaeresis (= spacing diaeresis); see Germanic umlaut
copy©U+00A9 (169)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumcopyright symbol
ordfªU+00AA (170)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumfeminine ordinal indicator
laquo«U+00AB (171)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumleft-pointing double angle quotation mark (= left pointingguillemet)
not¬U+00AC (172)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumnot sign
shy U+00AD (173)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumsoft hyphen (= discretionary hyphen)
reg®U+00AE (174)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumregistered sign ( = registered trademark symbol)
macr¯U+00AF (175)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOdiamacron (= spacing macron = overline = APL overbar)
deg°U+00B0 (176)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumdegree symbol
plusmn±U+00B1 (177)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumplus-minus sign (= plus-or-minus sign)
sup2²U+00B2 (178)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumsuperscript two (= superscript digit two = squared)
sup3³U+00B3 (179)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumsuperscript three (= superscript digit three = cubed)
acute´U+00B4 (180)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOdiaacute accent (= spacing acute)
microµU+00B5 (181)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnummicro sign
paraU+00B6 (182)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumpilcrow sign ( = paragraph sign)
middot·U+00B7 (183)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnummiddle dot (= Georgian comma = Greek middle dot)
cedil¸U+00B8 (184)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOdiacedilla (= spacing cedilla)
sup1¹U+00B9 (185)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumsuperscript one (= superscript digit one)
ordmºU+00BA (186)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnummasculine ordinal indicator
raquo»U+00BB (187)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumright-pointing double angle quotation mark (= right pointing guillemet)
frac14¼U+00BC (188)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumvulgar fraction one quarter (= fraction one quarter)
frac12½U+00BD (189)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumvulgar fraction one half (= fraction one half)
frac34¾U+00BE (190)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumvulgar fraction three quarters (= fraction three quarters)
iquest¿U+00BF (191)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnuminverted question mark (= turned question mark)
AgraveÀU+00C0 (192)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with grave accent (= Latin capital letter A grave)
AacuteÁU+00C1 (193)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with acute accent
AcircÂU+00C2 (194)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with circumflex
AtildeÃU+00C3 (195)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with tilde
AumlÄU+00C4 (196)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with diaeresis
AringÅU+00C5 (197)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter A with ring above (= Latin capital letter A ring)
AEligÆU+00C6 (198)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter AE (= Latin capital ligature AE)
CcedilÇU+00C7 (199)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter C with cedilla
EgraveÈU+00C8 (200)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter E with grave accent
EacuteÉU+00C9 (201)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter E with acute accent
EcircÊU+00CA (202)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter E with circumflex
EumlËU+00CB (203)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter E with diaeresis
IgraveÌU+00CC (204)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter I with grave accent
IacuteÍU+00CD (205)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter I with acute accent
IcircÎU+00CE (206)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter I with circumflex
IumlÏU+00CF (207)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter I with diaeresis
ETHÐU+00D0 (208)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter Eth
NtildeÑU+00D1 (209)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter N with tilde
OgraveÒU+00D2 (210)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with grave accent
OacuteÓU+00D3 (211)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with acute accent
OcircÔU+00D4 (212)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with circumflex
OtildeÕU+00D5 (213)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with tilde
OumlÖU+00D6 (214)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with diaeresis
times×U+00D7 (215)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnummultiplication sign
OslashØU+00D8 (216)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter O with stroke (= Latin capital letter O slash)
UgraveÙU+00D9 (217)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter U with grave accent
UacuteÚU+00DA (218)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter U with acute accent
UcircÛU+00DB (219)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter U with circumflex
UumlÜU+00DC (220)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter U with diaeresis
YacuteÝU+00DD (221)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter Y with acute accent
THORNÞU+00DE (222)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin capital letter THORN
szligßU+00DF (223)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter sharp s (= ess-zed); see German Eszett
agraveàU+00E0 (224)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with grave accent
aacuteáU+00E1 (225)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with acute accent
acircâU+00E2 (226)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with circumflex
atildeãU+00E3 (227)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with tilde
aumläU+00E4 (228)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with diaeresis
aringåU+00E5 (229)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter a with ring above
aeligæU+00E6 (230)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter ae (= Latin small ligature ae)
ccedilçU+00E7 (231)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter c with cedilla
egraveèU+00E8 (232)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter e with grave accent
eacuteéU+00E9 (233)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter e with acute accent
ecircêU+00EA (234)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter e with circumflex
eumlëU+00EB (235)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter e with diaeresis
igraveìU+00EC (236)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter i with grave accent
iacuteíU+00ED (237)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter i with acute accent
icircîU+00EE (238)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter i with circumflex
iumlïU+00EF (239)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter i with diaeresis
ethðU+00F0 (240)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter eth
ntildeñU+00F1 (241)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter n with tilde
ograveòU+00F2 (242)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with grave accent
oacuteóU+00F3 (243)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with acute accent
ocircôU+00F4 (244)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with circumflex
otildeõU+00F5 (245)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with tilde
oumlöU+00F6 (246)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with diaeresis
divide÷U+00F7 (247)HTML 3.2HTMLlat1ISOnumdivision sign (= obelus)
oslashøU+00F8 (248)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter o with stroke (= Latin small letter o slash)
ugraveùU+00F9 (249)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter u with grave accent
uacuteúU+00FA (250)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter u with acute accent
ucircûU+00FB (251)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter u with circumflex
uumlüU+00FC (252)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter u with diaeresis
yacuteýU+00FD (253)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter y with acute accent
thornþU+00FE (254)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter thorn
yumlÿU+00FF (255)HTML 2.0HTMLlat1ISOlat1Latin small letter y with diaeresis
OEligŒU+0152 (338)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOlat2Latin capital ligature oe[e]
oeligœU+0153 (339)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOlat2Latin small ligature oe[e]
ScaronŠU+0160 (352)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOlat2Latin capital letter s with caron
scaronšU+0161 (353)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOlat2Latin small letter s with caron
YumlŸU+0178 (376)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOlat2Latin capital letter y with diaeresis
fnofƒU+0192 (402)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechLatin small letter f with hook (= function = florin)
circˆU+02C6 (710)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubmodifier letter circumflex accent
tilde˜U+02DC (732)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOdiasmall tilde
AlphaΑU+0391 (913)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Alpha
BetaΒU+0392 (914)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Beta
GammaΓU+0393 (915)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Gamma
DeltaΔU+0394 (916)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Delta
EpsilonΕU+0395 (917)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Epsilon
ZetaΖU+0396 (918)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Zeta
EtaΗU+0397 (919)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Eta
ThetaΘU+0398 (920)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Theta
IotaΙU+0399 (921)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Iota
KappaΚU+039A (922)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Kappa
LambdaΛU+039B (923)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Lambda
MuΜU+039C (924)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Mu
NuΝU+039D (925)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Nu
XiΞU+039E (926)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Xi
OmicronΟU+039F (927)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Omicron
PiΠU+03A0 (928)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Pi
RhoΡU+03A1 (929)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Rho
SigmaΣU+03A3 (931)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Sigma
TauΤU+03A4 (932)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Tau
UpsilonΥU+03A5 (933)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Upsilon
PhiΦU+03A6 (934)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Phi
ChiΧU+03A7 (935)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolGreek capital letter Chi
PsiΨU+03A8 (936)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Psi
OmegaΩU+03A9 (937)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek capital letter Omega
alphaαU+03B1 (945)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter alpha
betaβU+03B2 (946)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter beta
gammaγU+03B3 (947)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter gamma
deltaδU+03B4 (948)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter delta
epsilonεU+03B5 (949)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter epsilon
zetaζU+03B6 (950)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter zeta
etaηU+03B7 (951)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter eta
thetaθU+03B8 (952)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter theta
iotaιU+03B9 (953)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter iota
kappaκU+03BA (954)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter kappa
lambdaλU+03BB (955)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter lambda
muμU+03BC (956)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter mu
nuνU+03BD (957)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter nu
xiξU+03BE (958)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter xi
omicronοU+03BF (959)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWGreek small letter omicron
piπU+03C0 (960)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter pi
rhoρU+03C1 (961)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter rho
sigmafςU+03C2 (962)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter final sigma
sigmaσU+03C3 (963)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter sigma
tauτU+03C4 (964)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter tau
upsilonυU+03C5 (965)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter upsilon
phiφU+03C6 (966)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter phi
chiχU+03C7 (967)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter chi
psiψU+03C8 (968)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter psi
omegaωU+03C9 (969)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek small letter omega
thetasymϑU+03D1 (977)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWGreek theta symbol
upsihϒU+03D2 (978)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWGreek Upsilon with hook symbol
pivϖU+03D6 (982)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOgrk3Greek pi symbol
enspU+2002 (8194)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpuben space[d]
emspU+2003 (8195)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubem space[d]
thinspU+2009 (8201)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubthin space[d]
zwnj U+200C (8204)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEW RFC 2070zero-width non-joiner
zwj U+200D (8205)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEW RFC 2070zero-width joiner
lrm U+200E (8206)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEW RFC 2070left-to-right mark
rlm U+200F (8207)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEW RFC 2070right-to-left mark
ndashU+2013 (8211)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpuben dash
mdashU+2014 (8212)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubem dash
lsquoU+2018 (8216)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOnumleft single quotation mark
rsquoU+2019 (8217)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOnumright single quotation mark
sbquoU+201A (8218)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEWsingle low-9 quotation mark
ldquoU+201C (8220)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOnumleft double quotation mark
rdquoU+201D (8221)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOnumright double quotation mark
bdquoU+201E (8222)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEWdouble low-9 quotation mark
daggerU+2020 (8224)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubdagger, obelisk
DaggerU+2021 (8225)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubdouble dagger, double obelisk
bullU+2022 (8226)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOpubbullet (= black small circle)[f]
hellipU+2026 (8230)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpubhorizontal ellipsis (= three dot leader)
permilU+2030 (8240)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISOtechper mille sign
primeU+2032 (8242)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechprime (= minutes = feet)
PrimeU+2033 (8243)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechdouble prime (= seconds = inches)
lsaquoU+2039 (8249)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISO proposedsingle left-pointing angle quotation mark[g]
rsaquoU+203A (8250)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialISO proposedsingle right-pointing angle quotation mark[g]
olineU+203E (8254)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWoverline (= spacing overscore)
fraslU+2044 (8260)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWfraction slash (= solidus)
euroU+20AC (8364)HTML 4.0HTMLspecialNEWeuro sign
imageU+2111 (8465)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsoblack-letter capital I (= imaginary part)
weierpU+2118 (8472)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsoscript capital P (= power set = Weierstrass p)
realU+211C (8476)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsoblack-letter capital R (= real part symbol)
tradeU+2122 (8482)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumtrademark symbol
alefsymU+2135 (8501)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWalef symbol (= first transfinite cardinal)[h]
larrU+2190 (8592)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumleftwards arrow
uarrU+2191 (8593)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumupwards arrow
rarrU+2192 (8594)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumrightwards arrow
darrU+2193 (8595)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumdownwards arrow
harrU+2194 (8596)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsaleft right arrow
crarrU+21B5 (8629)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolNEWdownwards arrow with corner leftwards (= carriage return)
lArrU+21D0 (8656)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechleftwards double arrow[i]
uArrU+21D1 (8657)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsaupwards double arrow
rArrU+21D2 (8658)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOnumrightwards double arrow[j]
dArrU+21D3 (8659)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsadownwards double arrow
hArrU+21D4 (8660)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsaleft right double arrow
forallU+2200 (8704)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechfor all
partU+2202 (8706)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechpartial differential
existU+2203 (8707)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechthere exists
emptyU+2205 (8709)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsoempty set (= null set = diameter)
nablaU+2207 (8711)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechnabla (= backward difference)
isinU+2208 (8712)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechelement of
notinU+2209 (8713)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechnot an element of
niU+220B (8715)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechcontains as member
prodU+220F (8719)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsbn-ary product (= product sign)[k]
sumU+2211 (8721)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsbn-ary summation[l]
minusU+2212 (8722)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechminus sign
lowastU+2217 (8727)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechasterisk operator
radicU+221A (8730)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechsquare root (= radical sign)
propU+221D (8733)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechproportional to
infinU+221E (8734)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechinfinity
angU+2220 (8736)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsoangle
andU+2227 (8743)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechlogical and (= wedge)
orU+2228 (8744)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechlogical or (= vee)
capU+2229 (8745)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechintersection (= cap)
cupU+222A (8746)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechunion (= cup)
intU+222B (8747)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechintegral
there4U+2234 (8756)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechtherefore sign
simU+223C (8764)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechtilde operator (= varies with = similar to)[m]
congU+2245 (8773)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechcongruent to
asympU+2248 (8776)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsralmost equal to (= asymptotic to)
neU+2260 (8800)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechnot equal to
equivU+2261 (8801)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechidentical to; sometimes used for 'equivalent to'
leU+2264 (8804)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechless-than or equal to
geU+2265 (8805)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechgreater-than or equal to
subU+2282 (8834)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechsubset of
supU+2283 (8835)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechsuperset of[n]
nsubU+2284 (8836)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsnnot a subset of
subeU+2286 (8838)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechsubset of or equal to
supeU+2287 (8839)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechsuperset of or equal to
oplusU+2295 (8853)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsbcircled plus (= direct sum)
otimesU+2297 (8855)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsbcircled times (= vector product)
perpU+22A5 (8869)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechup tack (= orthogonal to = perpendicular)[o]
sdotU+22C5 (8901)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamsbdot operator[p]
lceilU+2308 (8968)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamscleft ceiling (= APL upstile)
rceilU+2309 (8969)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamscright ceiling
lfloorU+230A (8970)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamscleft floor (= APL downstile)
rfloorU+230B (8971)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOamscright floor
langU+2329 (9001)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechleft-pointing angle bracket (= bra)[q]
rangU+232A (9002)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOtechright-pointing angle bracket (= ket)[r]
lozU+25CA (9674)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpublozenge
spadesU+2660 (9824)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpubblack spade suit[f]
clubsU+2663 (9827)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpubblack club suit (= shamrock)[f]
heartsU+2665 (9829)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpubblack heart suit (= valentine)[f]
diamsU+2666 (9830)HTML 4.0HTMLsymbolISOpubblack diamond suit[f]


  1. ^ DTD: the full public DTD name (where the character entity name is defined) is actually mapped from one of the following three defined named entities:
    • HTMLlat1 maps to:
    • HTMLsymbol maps to:
    • HTMLspecial maps to:
  2. ^ Old ISO subset: these are old (documented) character subsets used in legacy encodings before the unification within ISO 10646.
  3. ^ Description: the standard ISO 10646 and Unicode character name is displayed first for each character, with non-standard but legacy synonyms shown in italics between parentheses after an equal sign.
  4. a b c d spaces: a blue background has been used to display each space's width.
  5. a b ligature: this is a standard misnomer as this is a separate character in some languages.
  6. a b c d e black: here it seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow.
  7. a b ISO proposed: these characters have been standardized in ISO 10646 after the release of HTML 4.0.
  8. ^ alefsym: 'alef symbol' is NOT the same as U+05D0 'Hebrew letter alef', although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters.
  9. ^ lArr: ISO 10646 does not say that 'leftwards double arrow' is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests.
  10. ^ rArr: ISO 10646 does not say that 'rightwards double arrow' is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests.
  11. ^ prod: 'n-ary product' is NOT the same character as U+03A0 'Greek capital letter Pi' though the same glyph might be used for both.
  12. ^ sum: 'n-ary summation' is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'Greek capital letter Sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both.
  13. ^ sim: 'tilde operator' is NOT the same character as U+007E 'tilde', although the same glyph might be used to represent both.
  14. ^ sup: note that nsup, U+2283 'not a superset of', is not covered by the Symbol font encoding and is not included. Should it be, for symmetry? It is in the ISOamsn subset.
  15. ^ perp: Unicode only defines U+22A5 as the "up tack". The Unicode symbol for "perpendicular" is U+27C2. The two symbols look similar, but are separate in Unicode. However, HTML uses U+22A5 as its "perpendicular" symbol. This is a discrepancy between HTML and Unicode. As well, the U+22A4 character (the "down tack" symbol) rendered in a browser such as Firefox 3.6 can match the font of either "up tack" or "perpendicular", but not both, depending on whether a fixed-width or a proportional font is used. When viewed in Firefox 3.6, the symbols rendered in the order U+22A5, U+22A4, U+27C2 in a proportional font: ⊥ ⊤ ⟂ and a fixed width one: ⊥ ⊤ ⟂, shows that the "down tack" has a similar look to U+22A5 (HTML's "perpendicular") in the first case but matches U+27C2 in the second. This exemplifies the difficulties of the semiotics involved in interpreting glyphssymbols and characters generally.
  16. ^ sdot: 'dot operator' is NOT the same character as U+00B7 'middle dot'.
  17. ^ lang: 'left-pointing angle bracket' is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than', U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark', U+2329 'left-pointing angle bracket', U+27E8 'mathematical left angle bracket', or U+3008 'left angle bracket' though the same glyph may be used for all of them.
  18. ^ rang: 'right-pointing angle bracket' is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than', U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark', U+232A 'right-pointing angle bracket', U+27E9 'mathematical right angle bracket', or U+3009 'right angle bracket' though the same glyph may be used for all of them.

[edit]Entities representing special characters in XHTML

The XHTML DTDs explicitly declare 253 entities (including the 5 predefined entities of XML 1.0) whose expansion is a single character, which can therefore be informally referred to as "character entities". These (with the exception of the &apos; entity) have the same names and represent the same characters as the 252 character entities in HTML. Also, by virtue of being XML, XHTML documents may reference the predefined &apos; entity, which is not one of the 252 character entities in HTML. Additional entities of any size may be defined on a per-document basis. However, the usability of entity references in XHTML is affected by how the document is being processed:

  • If the document is read by a conforming HTML processor, then only the 252 HTML character entities can safely be used. The use of &apos; or custom entity references may not be supported and may produce unpredictable results.
  • If the document is read by an XML parser that does not or cannot read external entities, then only the five built-in XML character entities (see above) can safely be used, although other entities may be used if they are declared in the internal DTD subset.
  • If the document is read by an XML parser that does read external entities, then the five built-in XML character entities can safely be used. The other 248 HTML character entities can be used as long as the XHTML DTD is accessible to the parser at the time the document is read. Other entities may also be used if they are declared in the internal DTD subset.

Because of the special &apos; case mentioned above, only &quot;&amp;&lt;, and &gt; will work in all processing situations.

[edit]See also


[edit]External links

출처 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_XML_and_HTML_character_entity_references

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